The Toponym Lycia in The Histories (Herodotus)

This page displays place names and other words associated with the place name "Lycia" (Lycia, parent-region: Asia) in The Histories of Herodotus. Most of the data behind this display came from the Hestia Project. These results should be viewed as purely exploratory, since they are based on "quick and dirty" attempts at tokenization and other preliminary analyses.

Visualize the Toponym Lycia in Google Earth (click here)



Places near-by in the text (26): Opis (7), Sardis (6), Egypt (6), Delos (3), Asia (2), Pontus (2), Caria (2), Crete (2), Mykale (1), Hellespont (1), Sestus (1), Cilicia (1), Aradus (1), Hellas (1), Cyprus (1), Tyre (1), Patara (1), Phrygia (1), Ninus (1), Ceos (1), Euphrates (1), Babylon (1), Phoenicia (1), Thebes (1), Euxine (1), Persia (1)



Methods to this Madness

The metric we're using to show associations between toponymns in the text with is based on the following method. Each token in the Histories has an index number, counting from 1 at the beginning of the text to 241,950 at the end of the text. We (arbitrarily) segment our translated version of the Histories into sections 300 tokens in length. We count the co-occurance of toponymns in these sections.

We're now using the Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) metric to examine the strength of association between 'Lycia' and other toponyms. In the map, we also provide Φ2 values. this paper about Perseus text analysis (PDF) further describes this kind of method.

Line thickness and colors used in the map relates to the (NMI) metric for toponymns related to 'Lycia'.

Please note! These results are preliminary and exploratory. We're working to improve the analytic value of metrics and visualizations like this.


Place (T# = token number)Average Word DistanceNear Place Terms (T# = token number)Nearby Words (Count)
Lycia (13357)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 112.17

Number geo-subtypes: 1

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 1

Sardis (T#: 13291)

Sardis (T#: 13250)

Sardis (T#: 13237)

Sardis (T#: 13420)

Sardis (T#: 13490)

Sardis (T#: 13541)

Telmissus (1), Telmessus (1), Apollo (1), priests (1), caste (1), interpretersThese (1), Telmessian (1), homes (1), portent (2), thought (1), Croesus (3), devoured (1), pasture (1), accustomed (1), leaving (1), horses (1), appeared (1), city (1), part (1), outer (1), swarm (1), began (1), snakes (1), reasoned (1), twn (2), echghtewn (2), telmhssewn (2), contrary (1), Greek (1), usage (1), echghths (1), substantive (1), Stein (1), suggests (1), true (1), reading (1), inquire (1), messengers (1), learned (1), Telmessians (1), meant (1), bring (1), word (1), prisoner (1)
Lycia (31722)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 165.17

Number geo-subtypes: 3

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 6

Patara (T#: 31720)

Egypt (T#: 31674)

Thebes (T#: 31672)

Babylon (T#: 31944)

Ninus (T#: 32044)

Euphrates (T#: 32069)

Patara (1), Apollo (1), god (1), prophetess (1), men (1), intercourse (1), woman (2), Babylonian (2), Egyptian (1), 242 (1), Hdt (1), cp (1), Greekamenwfis (1), ZeusAmonApi (1), Theban (1), temple (3), sleeps (1), Egyptians (1), Egypt (1), Thebes (1), couch (1), rest (1), shrine (2), visit (1), appointed (2), place (1), divination (1), shut (1), night (1), great (2), golden (2), image (1), Zeus (1), sitting (1), table (1), footstool (1), chair (1), gold (2), Chaldeans (1), talents (1), weight (1)
Lycia (69610)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 58.33

Number geo-subtypes: 1

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 2

Egypt (T#: 69560)

Egypt (T#: 69513)

Egypt (T#: 69472)

Egypt (T#: 69617)

Persia (T#: 69634)

Egypt (T#: 69644)

caught (1), eunuch (2), pursue (1), trusted (1), trireme (1), catch (1), anxious (1), Amasis (3), matters (1), Egyptian (1), knowledge (1), exact (1), mercenaries (1), admired (1), man (1), Cambyses (3), talk (1), hoping (1), ship (1), aboard (1), Egypt (3), fled (1), grudge (1), brought (1), Phanes (2), clever (1), guards (1), drunk (1), escaped (1), Persia (1), prepared (1), set (1), doubt (1), march (2), cross (1), waterless (1), desert (1), showed (1), condition (1), advised (1), send (1)
Lycia (100585)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 45.17

Number geo-subtypes: 1

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 2

Opis (T#: 100545)

Delos (T#: 100518)

Opis (T#: 100506)

Delos (T#: 100589)

Opis (T#: 100600)

Opis (T#: 100651)

Olen (2), hymn (1), names (2), calling (2), gifts (2), collected (1), women (1), Delians (1), honors (1), received (1), Artemis (1), themselvesApollo (1), gods (1), Opis (2), Arge (2), childbearing (1), easing (1), pay (1), agreed (1), tribute (1), Eileithyia (1), bring (1), Laodice (1), Hyperoche (1), earlier (1), Delos (2), islanders (1), Ionians (1), learned (1), sing (1), hymns (2), collecting (1), coming (1), Lycia (1), ancient (1), sung (1), thighbones (1), burnt (1), sacrifice (1), altar (1), ashes (1), cast (1)
Lycia (100615)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 57.83

Number geo-subtypes: 2

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 4

Opis (T#: 100600)

Delos (T#: 100589)

Opis (T#: 100545)

Opis (T#: 100651)

Ceos (T#: 100668)

Asia (T#: 100762)

coming (1), Olen (2), gifts (2), collecting (1), names (2), calling (2), Arge (2), Opis (2), hymns (2), sing (1), learned (1), Ionians (1), islanders (1), Delos (2), Lycia (1), hymn (1), collected (1), women (1), Delians (1), honors (1), received (1), ancient (1), sung (1), thighbones (1), burnt (1), sacrifice (1), altar (1), ashes (1), cast (1), burialplace (1), temple (1), Artemis (1), east (1), nearest (1), refectory (1), people (1), Ceos (1), Hyperboreans (1), suffice (1), story (1), Abaris (1), alleged (1)
Lycia (102237)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 22.5

Number geo-subtypes: 3

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 3

Crete (T#: 102235)

Crete (T#: 102232)

Phoenicia (T#: 102230)

Euxine (T#: 102269)

Pontus (T#: 102270)

Pontus (T#: 102293)

Crete (2), Phoenicia (1), Europe (2), call (1), Greeks (1), land (2), birth (1), Asiatic (1), woman (1), plain (1), rest (1), nameless (1), Europa (1), Tyrian (1), gave (1), clear (1), seas (1), bounded (1), knowledge (1), men (2), takes (1), Sardis (1), matters (1), suffice (1), names (1), established (1), custom (1), ignorant (1), lands (1), Euxine (1), Pontus (2), excluding (1), Scythian (2), nation (3), Darius (1), led (1), army (1), show (1), region (1), cleverness (1), overlooking (1), Anacharsis (1)
Lycia (177324)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 100.83

Number geo-subtypes: 5

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 6

Phrygia (T#: 177321)

Caria (T#: 177320)

Asia (T#: 177252)

Sestus (T#: 177459)

Hellespont (T#: 177462)

Mykale (T#: 177577)

Pisidia (1), Phrygia (1), Caria (1), bordered (1), district (1), CabeleesFrom (1), Ares (1), sacred (1), divination (1), place (2), men (1), rags (1), purple (1), strips (1), wrapped (1), legs (1), crests (1), bronze (2), wrought (1), oxen (1), horns (1), ears (1), helmets (2), Meiones (1), called (1), Lasonii (1), equipment (1), Cilicians (2), narrative (1), declare (1), Milyae (1), short (1), spears (1), garments (1), fastened (1), brooches (1), carried (1), Lycian (1), bows (1), wore (1), caps (1), skin (1), heads (1), commander (1), Badres (1), son (1)
Lycia (179135)

Ave. Word Dist between place terms: 19.83

Number geo-subtypes: 4

Number Barrington Atlas Grids: 6

Cilicia (T#: 179129)

Aradus (T#: 179123)

Tyre (T#: 179117)

Cyprus (T#: 179141)

Caria (T#: 179153)

Hellas (T#: 179194)

Oromedon (1), son (10), Syennesis (1), Cilicia (1), Agbalus (1), Merbalus (1), Aradus (1), Siromus (1), Matten (1), Tyre (1), Anysus (1), Tetramnestus (1), Sidon (1), board (1), famous (1), admirals (1), thousand (1), total (1), horses (1), transports (1), great (2), galleys (1), Cyberniscus (1), Sicas (1), Cyprus (1), Gorgus (1), Chersis (1), Timonax (1), Timagoras (1), Caria (1), Histiaeus (1), Tymnes (1), Pigres (1), Hysseldomus (1), Damasithymus (1), Candaules (1), mention (1), captains (1), Artemisia (1), find (1)

Associated Terms (288): son (11), names (5), Egypt (4), great (4), Delos (4), Olen (4), Opis (4), hymns (4), men (4), gifts (4), Arge (4), calling (4), temple (4), place (3), learned (3), woman (3), Croesus (3), nation (3), Amasis (3), Cambyses (3), collected (2), Babylonian (2), women (2), rest (2), Delians (2), received (2), Artemis (2), honors (2), divination (2), Crete (2), eunuch (2), helmets (2), march (2), bronze (2), knowledge (2), matters (2), gold (2), Scythian (2), Caria (2), Phanes (2), appointed (2), hymn (2), golden (2), Cilicians (2), Pontus (2), shrine (2), Egyptian (2), sung (2), thighbones (2), burnt (2), ancient (2), twn (2), telmhssewn (2), echghtewn (2), sacrifice (2), ashes (2), suffice (2), Europe (2), Apollo (2), land (2), portent (2), cast (2), horses (2), Lycia (2), altar (2), coming (2), bring (2), Ionians (2), islanders (2), collecting (2), sing (2)